User Guide

Tips for searching

JRAD offers both text and field searching options which can be used in any combination, and the most appropriate method for searching dependent upon your specific needs. Careful planning of your search will bring back the most relevant search results; more specific search criteria will result in fewer results in your search. For example, using a content text search is particularly useful when conducting general research into a topic because it will bring back all records in which a word or phrase is used. In contrast, using a combination of field searches, such as case number, date created and document type, is particularly useful if you are looking for a particular record, because it will limit the number of results your search brings back.

Searches can be refined if the results are not what you are expecting. If your search has brought back too many records for you to review, try adding additional criteria or using more specific search terms, and if your search has not brought back what you are looking for, try removing some of the criteria, or using broader search terms.

Creating default searches

If there are certain search criteria which you use regularly, you can create your own default search by creating a bookmark using your internet browser. For example, if you only want to see records in one language, you can select that language in the search page, and then save it as a bookmark using your internet browser. Multiple default searches can be created, and you can title and organize them within your internet browser as best suits your needs.

There are several methods which can be used to search the contents of JRAD using words or phrases, and several parameters within those methods which can be used to further refine or expand your search. The level of specificity of the search you are conducting will determine the most appropriate type and parameters to use to bring back desired results.

  • Title search will bring back records with a specified word, words or phrase in the title of the record.
  • Content search will bring back all text-based records which contain a specified word, words, or phase in the text of the document itself, and is useful in conducting general research into a topic based on a key word or phrase. A content word search will typically yield more results than a title word search.
  • The Expert search method provides search options which can be used for complex research not provided for in the Title or Content search methods. It includes a range of Boolean and Proximity operators which are useful in either expanding or refining the results of a text search.

Note on text searches:

  • Any language can be used in text searches, but the system will not automatically translate the word(s) you have entered.
  • Punctuation should not be used in text searches.
Title
  • Single word: If you are looking for a record in which a particular word appears in the title, select Title and type that word in the text search field. This will bring back all records which have that exact word in the title.
  • Phrase: If you are looking for a record in which the title contains an exact multi-word phrase, select Title and Phrase, and type the exact phrase into the text search field. This will bring back records which have the exact phrase, as typed in the title (For example decision on the enforcement of sentence will bring back all records in which that exact phrase appears in the title.)
  • And: If you are looking for a record in which multiple words appear in the title, select Title and And, and type the words in the text search field. This will bring back all records which have your search terms in the title, regardless of the order in which they appear, or if they are separated by other words. (For example, enforcement And sentence will bring back all records which have both words appearing in the title).

Note on title word searches:

  • There is no need to type Phrase or And into the search field when conducting a title search.
  • Title searches use the exact term entered in the search field. A wildcard (*) or (?) search can be used to expand your search to include variant spellings or multiple forms of a word in a title word search.
  • Diacritical marks are not necessary in single word or And title searches, but are used in in Phrase searches. Due to discrepancies in data entry, if you are conducting a search for a Phrase which includes diacritical marks, it is recommended to conduct two separate searches, one in which the diacritical marks are included, and one in which they are not.
Content
  • Single word: If you are looking for records which include a specific word in the text of the document, select Content and type that word into the text search field. A generic term (such as enforcement) will bring back a very large number of records, and this type of search is therefore particularly useful is your search term is very specific (such as the name of a location.)
  • Phrase: If you are looking for records which include a specific multi-word phrase in the text of the document, select Content and Phrase and type the exact phrase into the text search field. This will bring back all records which include that exact phrase in the text of the document.
  • Proximity: If you are looking for records in which two words appear in close proximity to each other in the text of the document, select Content and one of the two NEAR operators, and type those words into the text search field. NEAR10 will bring back all records where those words appear within ten words of each other in the text of the document, and NEAR5 will bring back records where those words appear within five words of each other in the text of the document.
  • And: If you are looking for records in which multiple words appear anywhere in the text of the document, select Content and And, and type your search terms into the text search field. This will bring back all records which include all specified words in the text of the document, regardless of their proximity to each other.

Notes on content word searching:

  • There is no need to type Phrase, NEAR5, NEAR10 or And into the search field when conducting a content search.
  • Content word searches automatically use stemming and will bring back results for most forms of a word. For example, the search term refer will bring back all records which include the words referral, refers, referring, referred, etc. The wildcard symbols (*) and (?) can be used to bring back results for variant spellings of your search term.
  • When you conduct a content search, your search term(s) will be highlighted in yellow when you view a document, to facilitate research. Alternatively, if you chose to download the document instead of using the view function, you can find the word(s) you have entered using “Find” (Ctrl+F) in your pdf viewer.
  • Content word searches will not bring back non-textual records, such as maps, photographs or audiovisual recordings.
  • Depending on the image quality of the document, results may be inexact in a content search (for example, a search for the word court may also bring back records which contain the word count because of the visual similarity between the letters r and n).
  • Diacritical marks are not necessary in content searches.
  • Proximity searching can be used for searches of more than two words, but close attention should be paid to the order in which the words are entered in the text search field, as this will determine the preference and behavior of the search.
  • Other Boolean and Proximity content word searches are available using the expert search.
Expert

The Expert search method allows you to use a full range of Boolean and Proximity search operators not otherwise provided for in the Title or Content text searches, including customizable and weighted proximity searches and directional searches. The Expert method also allows you to adjust the fuzziness of your search terms and to perform searches with multiple operators, including nested searching.

To perform an Expert search, select Expert, and type your search term(s) into the text field, separated by the appropriate operator. The operator should be entered in ALL CAPS. A summary of the types of searches available in the Expert search method are listed below. For a full list of operators, click here.

  • Boolean (AND, OR, and NOT): In addition to the Boolean operator AND, available in the content search method, you can use the Boolean operator OR if you are looking for records in which any one of several words appear in the text of the document. This is useful in searching across languages or to search for records which include words which are synonymous with each other. If you are looking for records in which one word appears, and another does not, the Boolean operator NOT can be used. This is useful in situations where it is common for two words to be used in the same record, but you are only interested in results where one of those words is excluded.
  • Proximity, Directional, and Weighted: In addition to the two proximity operators (NEAR5 and NEAR10) which are available in the Content search method, the Expert search method provides you with additional methods to expand or limit your search results for records which contain multiple search terms in proximity to each other. This includes directional searches, which will retrieve only records in which one search term appears before or after the other, as well as weighted searches, which will sort your results in order of relevance.
  • Wildcard, Fuzzy, and Exact: While stemming occurs automatically, wildcard and fuzzy searches are useful in retrieving records with variant spellings of your search terms, or words which may have been misspelt in the text of the document. Wildcard symbols (?) and (*) are used to replace character(s) in your search term. Fuzzy searches, which can be adjusted for tolerance, will automatically retrieve records which include words which are similar to your search term(s). If you want to disable stemming and search for an exact term, as entered, the search term(s) can be enclosed in quotation marks.
  • Multiple operator searches: Complex searches can be created using more than one of any of expert search operators. Searches using multiple operators can also include bracketed expressions, or nested searching. Bracketed expressions dictate the preference and behavior of multiple operators used within a given search.

Document Type

This search method breaks down the records in JRAD by type, and can be a very useful tool in refining searches. For example, if you are only interested in the transcripts of the proceedings, selecting transcript as your document type will bring back results which do not include any other type of records which are not of interest to you. Multiple values can be selected; for example, it is possible to refine your search to bring back both orders and decisions, but not other document types.

Document Source

This search method breaks down the records in JRAD by their source and provides a consolidated list of the sources of the judicial records. For example, you can refine your search to bring back only records originating from the Defence. Multiple values can be selected; for example, it is possible to refine your search to bring records submitted by the Appeals Chamber and the President, but not records originating from other sources.

Organization

This search method can be used to refine your search to bring back only records created by the ICTR or one of the branches of the IRMCT. Multiple values can be selected; for example, it is possible to refine your search to bring back ICTR and IRMCT Arusha records, but not IRMCT The Hague records.

Date Created

This search method can be used if you know the approximate date of the record(s) you are looking for. Either enter the date in the To and From fields in DD-MM-YYYY format, or click on the field to select the dates from the calendar option.

For transcripts and audiovisual recordings, the date represents the date of the judicial proceeding. For exhibits, the date represents the date that the exhibit was admitted in court. For filings, the date represents the date of the document; to search by the date the document was filed, use the “Date filed” search method.

Date Filed

This search method can be used if you know the approximate date on which a filing was submitted to the Registry. For the original language version of a filing, it is typically the same day, or one or two days later than, the date created. For translations, it is the date that the translated version of the filing was submitted to the Registry, and will therefore be later than the “date created”.

Language

Judicial records may have been submitted in either of the official languages of the ICTR / IRMCT (English or French), and in some instances, judicial records may have been submitted in another language, including Bosnian / Serbian / Croatian or Kinyarwanda. Many records have also been translated into one or more languages. This search method can be used to refine your search to bring back only records in the language(s) you have selected.

Witness

This search method is not applicable to filings, but will bring back results for exhibits, transcripts and audiovisual recordings. It can be used if you are interested in information related to a particular witness’s testimony, including the records of their testimony, and the exhibits admitted during their testimony. For non-protected witnesses, including the accused, enter all or part of the individual’s name, and for protected witnesses, enter their pseudonym. The full names of protected witnesses are not accessible in JRAD.

Exhibit Number

This search method is not applicable to filings, transcripts or audiovisual recordings, and will only bring back results for exhibits. It can be used if you know the specific exhibit number which was assigned to an exhibit at the time that it was admitted in court.

Notes on exhibit numbers:

  • Typically, exhibits admitted by the Prosecution begin with the letter P followed by the next sequential number for each case (ie, the first prosecution exhibit in a given case is P1, the second is P2 etc,) and exhibits admitted by the Defence begin with the letter D followed by the next sequential number for that case. However, the numbering for exhibits varies from case to case; for example, in cases with multiple accused, a unique designation may have been used for each of the defence teams.
  • Many exhibit are admitted in multiple parts, generally designating translations (for example, exhibit P2-A and P2-B, or P2-E and P2-F).
  • A wildcard (*) search can be useful in refining your search if you are not sure about the specific numbering convention used in a given case. For example, entering “P2*” will bring back results for all exhibit numbers which begin with P2, including those with additional designations (P2-62, P2.E, P2/A etc.) Similarly, entering “*287” will bring back P287, P-287, D287, D00287, etc.

Record number

Record number is a unique identifier which has been assigned to each judicial record. Because there are no duplicate record numbers, this is the most exact method of retrieving an individual record.

Case Number / Case Name

All judicial records are filed in a case file. Case number / name is one of most useful criterion on which to build a search, if you know the case number or name you are interested in. Because of the large number of case files, the list of available options under this search method is quite long, and this search method has been replicated in a table format in the Cases tab, which provides an alernate interface for searching by the case name or number.

Notes on case numbers:

  • For cases involving multiple accused, one case number is used to reflect the case file for all relevant accused in that case.
  • One accused can be related to more than one case; for example, if an individual accused was severed from a joinder case, records relating to him/her will be filed in the initial joinder case file up until the time that the decision granting the severance was issued, and will be filed in the individual severed case file after that date.
  • When the competence of an ICTY or ICTR case has been transferred to the Mechanism, a new case file is opened and that case file number will begin with MICT.

Accused Name

This search method can be used to bring back results for records from all cases involving an individual accused. Because one accused is often related to more than one case file, this search method will bring back a larger number of results than searching by Case number / Case name. This search method has been replicated in a table format in the Accused tab, which provides an alternate interface for searching using the name of an individual accused.

File format

Judicial records exist in a range of file formats. This search method allows you to specify the file format(s) you are interested in. This can be useful if you are interested in viewing only photographic or audiovisual materials. Results may be inexact if, for example, a photograph has been entered in .pdf format or a textual document has been entered as in .tif format.